This episode focuses on Exsurge Domine, the official papal response to Martin Luther. With the printing presses of Europe hard at work in the fall of 1517, the 95 Theses spread throughout Europe in a couple of weeks. Attention was drawn to the leadership of the church in Rome. In 1518 Cardinal Cajetan visited Luther in Augsburg, and Cajetan attempted to get Luther to recant. In the summer of 1519, John Eck debated Luther in Leipzig. Eck succeeded in getting Luther to admit that the issue was about more than reforming abuses. Luther admitted that the pope and a council could be wrong if they conflicted with Scripture.
In June of 1520, the pope signed Exsurge Domine, the papal bull that formally outlined Martin Luther’s errors. Cardinal Cajetan wanted a scholarly response to Luther that specifically outlined the errors of Luther. Eck wanted a response that was released quickly to address the issue of Luther before things got worse in Germany. Eck won and the papal bull lacks specifics against Luther but clearly labels him as a heretic dangerous to the church.
The name of this document comes from the first phrase in Latin, “Arise, O Lord!” It goes on to say that the wild board from the forest seeks to destroy the Lord’s vineyard and it is time to put down the boar.
Lucas Cranach included in the altar piece he painted for the Town Church in Wittenberg a picture of Martin Luther preaching from a pulpit that is decorated with a wild boar running through a vineyard.
We set aside our walk through beers from the Great Lakes region because we have found we have a consistent set of listeners from Japan. So this beer break features a beer form the Kiuchi Brewery. The beginning of this brewery is found when it was established in 1823 by Kiuchi Gihei, the headman of Kounosu village. The beer side of the business started in 1996 and named the beer “Hitachino Next Beer.” It has a unique owl character logo. This beer is a German style Hefe Weizen with banana, clove, and vanilla like flavors with a touch of toasty wheat malt and hops.
John M. Todd book Martin Luther, a biographical study
Hans Hillerbrand – several documents
Catholic.com: A Catholic website set up to defend the Roman Catholic faith against protestant attacks.
Good place for us to make sure we are not mischaracterizing Catholic teaching, although we would welcome anybody shooting us an email with any corrections on our understanding of Roman Catholic doctrine.
In this episode of Grace on Tap, Mike and Evan discuss the “fatherly hearing” between Cardinal Cajetan and Martin Luther at Augsburg in 1518. Luther wrote about this informal hearing when he returned to Wittenberg.
In June 1518, Pope Leo X has empowered a court to begin proceedings against Martin Luther. This court based on their examination of Luther’s 95 Theses called Luther to come to Rome for a trial. Cardinal Cajetan received word of this while he attending the Diet of Augsburg. August 28 Cardinal Cajetan received orders from the pope to arrest Luther, absolve him if he recanted, and use the ban to deal with all that supported him. The pope also wrote to Frederick the Wise seeking help in arresting this “son of perdition.”
Instead of arresting Luther, the cardinal agrees to a “fatherly” hearing.
In this episode we discuss how the cardinal insisted Luther recant his statements on the basis of canon law. Luther refused to recant on the basis of anything besides the authority of Scripture. Luther’s explanation of this meeting shows his trust on the enduring Word of the Lord as his sole source and norm for doctrine.
The featured beer for this episode is the Great Lakes Brewing Edmund Fitzgerald Porter. This robust and complex porter is a bittersweet tribute to the legendary freighter’s fallen crew—taken too soon when the gales of November came early.
Martin Luther and Cardinal Cajetan will have an important meeting in Augsburg in 1518. In this episode we talk about the lead up to this meeting. First we discuss the perspective of the pope. Then we look at Luther’s expectations for this meeting. Finally we discuss Frederick the Wise’s approach to this meeting.
In the summer of 1518, Cardinal Cajetan was traveling to Augsburg to attend the Diet of the Holy Roman Empire. The Imperial Diet was the general assembly of the Imperial Estates of the Holy Roman Empire. Part of the cardinal’s mission attending this diet was to get Luther to recant of his statements. Frederick the Wise recognized that the pope was in a weak position concerning discipline of Luther since everyone knew that Emperor Maximillian was going to eventually die. The pope needed to maintain friendly relationships with the electors of the Holy Roman Emperor so that he could have influence on who would be elected to be the next emperor. Frederick the Wise used his position as an elector to make sure that Luther did not get taken to Rome for a heresy trial.
Aromatic. Approachable. Unique. Intriguing. Happy-go-lucky. Full-bodied. And we’re not just talking about the horse.
This hop-forward session American Pale Ale uses a blend of classic and modern Pacific Northwest hops, including Mosaic, Ekuanot™ (formerly Equinox) and Glacier, for a pungent blend of peach, mango and tropical aromas. The signature ingredient – oats – are what makes Oatsmobile Ale stand apart, and gives it a body that you don’t see in most other sessionable pale ales.